“Nationalist Exclusion and Religious Violence in Bangladesh, 2001-2014″
A Senior Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts.
Since, despite the stern demands
of scientist and realist, we will always
be supposing, let us suppose
that Nature gave the world flowers
and birdsong as a language, by which
it might speak to discerning humans.
And what must we say back? Not
just thanks or praise, but acts
of kindness bespeaking kinship
with the creatures and with Nature, acts
faithful as the woods that dwells in place
time out of mind, self-denying
as the parenthood of the birds, and like
the flowers humble and beautiful.
- Wendell Berry, “This Day,” 2006
Loving you has taught me the infinite
longing of the self to be given away
and the great difficulty of that entire
giving, for in love to give is to receive
and then there is yet more to give;
and others have been born of our giving
to whom the self, greatened by gifts,
must be given, and by that giving
be increased until, self-burdened,
the self, staggering upward in years,
in fear, hope, love, and sorrow,
imagines, rising like a moon,
a pale moon risen in daylight
over the dark woods, the Self
whose gift we and all others are,
the self that is by definition given.
- Wendell Berry, 1991, in “This Day: Collected & New Sabbath Poems”
“How can we use Buddhist values to create a better society?” This is the central question posed by the International Network of Engaged Buddhists, and it was the question framing a two-week training on Socially Engaged Buddhism that I and eight other Princeton students were fortunate to participate in this summer. Socially Engaged Buddhism teaches social action and social critique based on Buddhist philosophy and values. Developed by Thich Nhat Hanh, Buddhadasa Bhikku, and Sulak Sivaraksa, the philosophy recognizes suffering in the modern world as connected to structural violence and ‘mass delusion,’ and promotes personal spiritual development, social critique, and network-based action in response to social ills and injustices.
I spent the past week in Dhaka, Bangladesh as the first part of my month in Southeast Asia. This week I was exploring Bangladesh’s political and cultural history with a special focus on the place of ethnic & religious minorities in this country on university-sponsored research. I’ve just arrived in Bangkok and am transitioning into the second part of the trip exploring the intersections of religion and grassroots democracy activism in a Buddhist context in Thailand and Burma. I’m excited; will hopefully be able to post on this later. Continue reading
The crisis of survival and the threat to sustenance arises from ecological disruption that is rooted in the arrogance of the west and those that ape it. This arrogance is grounded in a blindness towards the quiet work and the invisible wealth created by nature and women and those who produce sustenance. Such work and wealth are ‘invisible’ because they are decentred, local, and in harmony with local ecosystems and needs. The more effectively the cycles of life, as essential ecological processes, are maintained, the more invisible they become. Disruption is violent and visible; balance and harmony are experienced, not seen. The premium on visibility placed by patriarchal maldevelopment forces the destruction of invisible energies and the work of women and nature, and the creation of spectacular, centralized work and wealth.
Such centralization and the uniformity associated with it works further against the diversity and plurality of life. Work and wealth in accordance with the feminine principle are significant precisely because they are rooted in stability and sustainability. Decentred diversity is the source of nature’s work and women’s productivity; it is the work of ‘insignificant’ plants in creating significant changes which shift the ecological equilibrium in life’s favour. It is the energy of all living things, in all their diversity, and together, the diversity of lives wields tremendous energy. Women’s work is similarly invisible in providing sustenance and creating wealth for basic needs. Their work in the forest, the field, and the river creates sustenance in quiet but essential ways. Every woman in every house in every village of rural India works invisibly to provide the stuff of life to nature and people. It is this invisible work that is linked to nature and needs, which conserves nature through maintaining ecological cycles, and conserves human life by satisfying the basic needs of food, nutrition, and water. It is this essential work that is destroyed and dispensed with by maldevelopment: the maintenance of ecological cycles has no place in a political economy of commodity and cash flows. …
The revolutionary and liberational potential of the recovery of the feminine principle consists in its challenging the concepts, categories, and processes which have created the threat to life, and in providing oppositional categories that create and enlarge the spaces for maintaining and enriching all life in nature and society. The radical shift induced by a focus on the feminine principle is the recognition of maldevelopment as a culture of destruction. The feminine principle becomes a category of challenge, which locates nature and women as the source of life and wealth, and as such, active subjects, maintaining and creating life-processes.
Vandana Shiva, “Staying Alive: Women, Ecology, and Development,” South End Press 2010, pp 44-46.
The Environment Matters In Religion, Too
Lately I’ve been feeling down about how religious people can neglect the environment or even feel environmental problems and suffering unimportant. Imam Khalid’s post today was encouraging. Imam Khalid Latif is NYU’s Muslim Chaplain and a shining beacon of compassion, fidelity, and hope for the religious and the progressive alike. He writes:
Our consumption is having a drastic impact on the world around us and it has an impact on people elsewhere. The over-consumption of the wealthiest nations, including our own, lends towards a need of fulfilling demand elsewhere when our own resources fun out. Our mistreatment of our land has not taught us to treat land better, but rather encouraged us to go and find land elsewhere to ruin also. The water we need to feed the mass quantities of livestock that we breed to consume in our franchises or to take the multiple showers and baths we take in a day, is water that others than don’t get to drink. Grains that we produce go to feed these animals as well, not because we’re trying to take care of the animal, but because we need them to be well-fed for when we turn them into the fast-food sandwiches that we enjoy eating. That’s water and grain that we are taking out of other people’s mouths. … When you consume too much, it has to come from somewhere. When you waste too much, it has to be put somewhere. Both extremes have consequences. The world produces sufficient amounts of everything to satisfy our basic needs. Our greed is what becomes hard to satiate.
I’m not an expert on the environment. I am expert on my own habits though. Ramadan can teach me how little I really need and how oblivious or how awake I am to the world around me. All those things we learn and hear and become desensitized to are actually real. The way we treat the world is indicative of how we treat ourselves and each other. I am more focused on satisfying my needs rather than what makes sense for many others and myself.